Skip to main content Skip to footer

Masonry-Meddling In Its Mysteries Of Moisture Migration

May 15, 2011

There has been a dramatic
increase in complaints regarding
water intrusion through
masonry walls in recent years,
according to several building
envelope consultants. Has
something changed to generate the deluge
of problems? This treatise is intended to
stimulate the thought processes relative to
masonry construction’s problems in general
terms and not to address all possible problems.
A comprehensive analysis would
require a textbook.
There was a time when complaints
about masonry leaks were rare. Design,
manufacturing, and construction disciplines
have supposedly brought technological
improvements in masonry construction.
However, the best of cooks knows that when
trying to improve a recipe, even good intentions
can spoil the dish.
Weather-induced moisture is the primary
ingredient for masonry deterioration and
contributes to the following:
1. Creating or magnifying odors
2. Carrying harmful pollutant gases
into the building envelope
3. Causing wood studs, blocking, and
structural members to rot
4. Magnifying the effects of spalling
caused by freeze-thaw cycles
5. Encouraging growth of biological
organisms (mold, mildew, etc.)
6. Causing steel stud backup, ties, and
masonry reinforcing to corrode
7. Dissolving latent salts and depositing
them on the surface as efflorescence
8. Causing finishes on the inside of
exterior walls to fail prematurely
and to stain
Masonry walls built prior to 1900 were
usually thick and solid, consisting of multiple
wythes of brick, often 20 inches or more
thick, and exemplifying the rain barrier
concept (Figure 1). The bricks in these behemoth
walls absorbed water just as the brick
in our modern-constructed high-tech walls
do now. The wall’s mass was intended to
keep moisture from entering the occupied
space and not just to repel critters and hostile
invaders. Thus, any moisture that did
enter the wall could exit the same way it got
in. This is called drying out. Since it’s often
been said that brick absorbs moisture like a
sponge, it could almost be “wringing out.”
Figure 1 – Multiple wythes of brick.
6 • IN T E R FA C E MA R C H 2011
Older bricks were softer and more
porous because they were fired at a lower
temperature; consequently, they tended to
take on more moisture. Modern bricks are
fired in kilns with higher and more accurately
controlled temperatures. This makes
them harder and less permeable than the
older bricks that were sometimes air-dried.
At construction, bricks are as small as they
will ever be. From that day forward, they
will expand as they take on moisture and
shrink as they lose
moisture, but will
never shrink smaller
than when they left
the kiln. This is why
expansion joints are
used in brick walls.
Conversely, since
concrete masonry
units (CMU) are manufactured
from a wet
Portland cement mix,
they are the largest
that they will ever be
at manufacture, and
they tend to shrink
thereafter. This is
why control joints are
used in CMU walls.
Also, the old ma –
sonry consisted of a
lime mortar mix and
did not contain Por –
tland cement until
the 1870s. Without
the Portland cement,
the mortar was softer,
weaker, and more
porous, all of which
increases absorption.
Mortar with Portland
cement is stronger
and more rigid than
older mortars, and should not be used to
repair or repoint old mortar. In other words,
do not mix them. The incompatibility of the
two types of mortar can be disappointing.
No pun intended.
There is a common misconception that
buildings —especially masonry—should not
leak. Nevertheless, all buildings tend to leak
to some extent, and some leak more than
others. The secret is controlling the water
that gets in and providing a quick and easy
exit before it causes damage or enters the
occupied space. With the exception of the
Superdome and a few other stadiums, it
typically rains outside of a building; unless
it has a large umbrella above (Figure 2), the
masonry is going to get wet.
The following are three basic requirements
for moisture intrusion. Eliminate any
one, and water will not penetrate.
1. Moisture (rain, vapor, humidity)
2. Opening (crack, pores, joints, etc.)
3. Force (gravity, wind, capillary
action, pressure differential, etc.)
Masonry leaks because, as previously
mentioned, brick and mortar are porous,
and porous things absorb water. However,
bricks in themselves do not leak. Instead,
they absorb water until they become saturated
and then just overflow (Figure 3). This
is analogous to filling an empty jug with
water. The jug contains the water and does
not leak as it is filled. When water reaches
the top of the jug, the jug becomes full or
saturated and overflows or leaks if more
water is added. The same is true with brick.
One of the laws of physics says two bodies
can’t occupy the same space at the same
Notice the surfaces of some of the modern
fancy, folksy-named bricks on the market
today. Some bricks appear to have surfaces
that look like they were finished with
a backhoe. All these little cavities can trap
and hold moisture. The unique aesthetics of
disfigured bricks should not be the determining
selection factor unless the project
site is in an arid climate such as the desert.
Most masonry leaks seem to occur on
the northern quadrant of a building. A possible
explanation for this may be that bricks
on the northern quadrant tend to dry more
Figure 2 – Umbrella.
Figure 3 – Progression of moisture absorption.
M A R C H 2011 I N T E R FA C E • 7
slowly because they are exposed to less of the available direct sun
and heat. Also, the prevailing winds tend to be from directions other
than the north. These factors could cause the brick to retain more
moisture for longer periods, which would result in requiring less
water to bring the brick to the saturation point.
How much a structure gets wet depends on how long and how
hard it rains and the direction of the rain. Rain usually falls vertically
(Figure 4) because of gravity unless it is deflected by the wind.
Horizontal wind forces that exceed vertical gravity forces make rain
move at some angle between vertical and horizontal (Figure 3). Let’s
call it a “rain blizzard.” This phenomenon is explained by another
law of physics: things in motion tend to remain in motion in the
same direction unless acted on by an outside force.
Moisture accumulation occurs when more moisture moves in
than moves out. Fewer raindrops strike the face of the masonry walls
when raindrops fall vertically because the wall gets some protection
from any roof overhang, window sills, and any other projections
extending horizontally from the vertical plane (mini umbrellas). This
is probably why fewer walls leak during a vertical rain. When the
wind pushes raindrops against the masonry wall, the drops spread
out and become a thin sheet of water as shown in Figure 5; then
kinetic energy takes over, driving the sheets of water into the masonry.
It is easier for the wall to absorb water that is thin and flat than
fat and round. Surface tension allows the cohesion of water droplets
to defy gravity and cross small openings and cracks, allowing the
moisture to be pulled into the wall. Many may recall the demonstrations
of surface tension in physics class, where water is carefully
filled above the rim of a glass without overflowing, or a thin piece of
metal floats when carefully placed in a pan of water. However, break
the surface tension by gently touching the water, and the water will
overflow the glass rim, and the piece of metal will sink.
The physical characteristics of the masonry make it rather hospitable
to the rain and invite it to come on in. The flattened raindrops
make their grand entry, and it is not an unannounced or sneaky
entry. Sometimes they can actually be heard knocking on the wall.
The moisture moves through the porosity of
the masonry and mortar, through open
mortar joints, and through normal gaps
and joints in the building construction.
Each raindrop seems to have the innate
ability to find its way through the building
envelope. Additionally, when the rain is
intense or prolonged, moisture can find its
way up from the ground, into the foundation,
and up the wall into the structure.
These antigravity actions are called capillary
action and vapor diffusion.
Cracks in the masonry (Figures 6A and
6B) are common and can be caused by mortar
shrinkage during curing, by brick units
expanding as they absorb moisture, or by
wind generating lateral forces. These cracks
can range from 0.004 in to 0.040 in wide.
Stress cracks in the masonry units can be
much wider. Tests by independent laboratories
show that wind-driven rain can enter
openings as narrow as 0.004 in. However,
representatives from the Brick Institute of
the Carolinas have said that aesthetically,
Figure 5 – Sheeting water created by water test. cracks 0.010 to 0.015 in are often consid-
Figure 4 – Water sheeting.
8 • IN T E R FA C E MA R C H 2011
ered acceptable because they are not usually
visible or noticed at distances greater
than 10 ft. In comparison, a Kleenex is
approximately 0.003 in thick, a new dollar
bill is approximately 0.005 in thick, and a
typical business card is approximately
0.010 in thick. So, taking this to its logical
conclusion, wind-driven rain may enter a
crack equal to the thickness of a Kleenex
and will enter a crack equal to the thickness
of a dollar bill.
After reviewing
some mortar mixes,
there seems to have
been a shift from
Type N mortar to
Type S mortar for exterior non-load-bearing
masonry veneer. Type S is much stronger
and more rigid with less flexibility, meaning
the mortar is more brittle. It is possible that
the rigidity of the Type S causes the joints
to crack during building movement. The
Brick Institute says that substituting Type
S for Type N in non-load-bearing masonry
The key to our
Garden Roof® is our
Monolithic Membrane
6125®, a seamless
rubberized asphalt
membrane with a 45+
year track record for
critical water-proofing
and roofing applications
From concept to completion
MA R C H 2011 I N T E R FA C E • 9
Figures 6A – Shrinkage cracks in mortar joints.
Figure 6B – Weak Bond in mortar joints.
veneer is acceptable, and designers seem to be making this
Tooling is paramount for watertight integrity. Proper
tooling creates a matrix of mortar that encapsulates the
sand to prevent it from being exposed to weather that
reduces capillary action. The most effective joints are concave
and flush (see Figures 7A, 7B, and 7C). Raked joints
should not be used because the important mortar matrix
may not be achieved, and raking creates a ledge that holds
Before exploring possible reasons for our perplexing
problems, we need to review some of the various ways that
moisture can move in and take up residence in a masonry
structure, or for that matter, other types of structures.
Moisture, in this context, means water in any one of its
three physical states: (1) solid, such as ice; (2) liquid, such
as water; and (3) gas, such as water vapor. It would be difficult
for moisture in the solid state to enter a structure, so
the liquid and vapor states seem to have the most dramatic
effect on masonry. However, moisture as liquid or vapor
that is trapped in a structure can freeze and inflict significant
structural damage.
To appreciate what goes on inside a brick wall, several
rules of movement need to be reviewed. Moisture movement
occurs when it changes from one state or point to another.
1. Moisture looks for an opening.
2. Gravity makes moisture flow downhill.
3. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air.
4. Moisture follows the path of least resistance.
5. Moisture moves from a higher humidity to a lower
6. Moisture moves from warm temperatures to cooler
7. Moisture moves from higher vapor pressures to
lower vapor pressures.
In other words, think high to low, like the evening television
meteorologist who shows a high pressure moving to
a low pressure. This whole moisture movement is mostly
related to heat. Beginning with moisture in the solid state,
if enough heat is added to the ice, it changes to a liquid
state. If even more heat is added to the water, it changes to
a gaseous state. Removing heat causes the reverse to occur.
Therefore, it can be said that heat, whether added or subtracted,
is the mechanism that allows water to change
Moisture has four means for making an appearance in
masonry. Besides cascading down the face of a structure as
a liquid torrent, it has three other more subtle ways of making
its entry, and any one of them can dampen spirits.
Following are the other three methods:
1. Catching a ride in moving air.
2. Hiding as invisible moisture in vapor diffusion.
3. Sneaking up concrete foundation as capillary action.
Figure 7C – Tooled raked joint. Generally, moisture will move through masonry or any
Figure 7A –Tooled concave joint.
Figure 7B – Tooled flush joint, old construction.
10 • I N T E R FA C E MA R C H 2011
MA R C H 2011 I N T E R FA C E • 1 1
other building material that is porous or
fibrous. However, it does tend to move
through some porous materials faster than
others. The cell structure of the building
material determines which state of moisture
will move through a material and how
easily it will move. Remember, moisture can
exit the same way that it enters. For a more
detailed discussion on the methods of moisture
movement, refer to this author’s article,
“The Great Moisture Movement,” published
in the July 2005 edition of Interface
journal. Drying is achieved in three ways:
draining, ventilation, and vapor diffusion.
Drainage is probably the quickest way to
remove moisture because it is removed in
bulk (liquid) form. However, drainage cannot
remove moisture that is stored in the
brick because drainage does not begin until
the brick is saturated. Thus, until drainage
begins, drying is done by ventilation and, to
a lesser degree, by vapor diffusion.
One of the first signs of a moisture problem
is efflorescence. Efflorescence is a white
powdery substance (Figures 8A and 8B) that
the author sometimes calls “masonry makeup,”
except that it does not add beauty to
the wall. Its sole purpose in life is to sound
the moisture alarm. On discovering efflorescence,
the designer can proclaim, “There
appears to be moisture in those walls.”
Efflorescence is another complex topic that
deserves its own article, so be on the lookout.
It forms on cementitious construction
when internal restless moisture dissolves
free water-soluble salt deposits in the
masonry and carries these deposits to the
surface. When the moisture containing the
dissolved salts evaporates, the masonry
makeup appears.
The simple equation for visible efflorescence
Efflorescence = salt deposits +
moisture + moisture path to the surface
+ evaporation.
Eliminate any one component of the
equation, and the efflorescence problem is
solved. Hidden efflorescence can be present
in masonry when the salts are dissolved by
moisture but the moisture has not migrated
to the surface. Efflorescence is not just a
cosmetic problem. During freeze/thaw conditions,
efflorescence can cause the brick to
weaken, spall, or crumble. It can be a slow
process, but it does occur.
There are two kinds of efflorescence:
powdery and crystalline.
Powdery efflorescence, as described
above, can usually be brushed away.
Crystalline efflorescence forms when
powdery efflorescence goes through cycles
of being deposited on the surface, then dissolved
from rain, and ultimately redries.
Eventually, tightly bonded crystals form
that cannot be brushed away.
Most modern bricks seem to be the
same (rough, rectangular, and red), are
fired in the same electric furnaces, and
have approximately the same 3500-psi
compressive strength. Perhaps the clays
have changed, but brick manufacturers say
that the same standards are met. Brick
manufacturers claim that porosity, which
governs absorption, is still virtually the
same. However, depending on its composition
and how the brick is fired, porosity can
vary somewhat among brick manufacturers.
Shop drawings submitted for brick
should include the initial absorption rate
and coefficient of absorption. A simple onsite
initial rate-of-absorption test can be
conducted. Absorption is defined as the
weight of water absorbed by a brick unit
under laboratory conditions and is ex –
pressed as a percentage. ASTM C216 limits
Type SW (severe-weather) face brick to 17%
and Type MW (moderate-weather) to 22%.
However, the absorption of most bricks produced
in the U.S. is 4% to 10%.
The initial rate of absorption (IRA) of
brick is an important factor in predicting
bond strength. Laboratory tests have determined
that ideal bond strength and maximum
water resistance are produced with
IRA of from 5 to 25 grams/minute/30 sq in
at the time bricks are laid. The 30 square
inches is based on the bed surface area of a
modular brick. Brick with an IRA greater
than 30 should be wetted prior to laying.
The saturation coefficient of brick (C/B
ratio) indicates the amount of easily
absorbed water by immersing the brick in
cold water for 24 hours and the amount
absorbed under pressure by immersing the
same unit after drying into boiling water for
five hours. This ratio measures the amount
of open pores remaining in the brick after
free absorption that will accommodate
expansion during freeze/thaw cycles. Type
SW brick must have a ratio equal to or less
than 0.78.
Another possible change is the mortar.
Many years ago, lime putty was made on
site, and all proportions (sand, Portland
cement, lime, and water) were carefully
measured before being added to the mixer,
and the mixing was timed. Site visits now
often reveal sand being measured by the
shovel full instead of in a 1-cu-yd box, with
much of the shovel’s contents missing the
mixer entirely. Modern Portland cement
and lime are premeasured and prebagged,
and often, part of the bag winds up on the
ground. Instead of being measured, water is
added directly to the mixer by hose until the
mix “looks about right.” The mixer runs
until the attendant remembers to stop it.
Masons repeatedly retemper mortar, which
can increase the water/cement ratio and
reduce mortar strength.
There are two basic approaches to prevent
water from entering a structure: barrier
systems and drainage systems. A barrier
system is simple compared to a drainage
system. A barrier system consists of an
exterior weather-resistant cladding, such as
brick, that is exposed directly to the weather
and relies on exterior cladding, flashing,
and sealed joints to prevent water intrusion.
The old multiwythe construction is an
excellent example of a rain-barrier system.
A drainage system (such as a cavity wall)
assumes that some water intrusion through
the exterior cladding is inevitable and
makes provisions for it to drain out.
Figure 8A – Powdery efflorescence. Figure 8B – Crystallized efflorescence.
One of the most dramatic changes was
the advent of the cavity wall that replaced
multiwythe construction. The cavity wall is
a complex and misunderstood design and
deserves a separate article. However, it will
be briefly discussed here.
After first appearing in ancient construction,
the British reintroduced the cavity
wall concept in the late 1800s, and it
started to gain popularity in the mid 1900s.
Cavity walls in masonry can be like tooth
cavities—they can cause a lot of grief if they
are not treated promptly and properly.
However, a masonry cavity can be a desirable
thing and should not be filled as is
done for a tooth cavity. If a masonry cavity
is filled or cluttered (as shown in Figure 9),
it is no longer a cavity, and that may not be
a good thing. Reasons will become obvious
in the following paragraphs. Figure 10
shows a cavity partially blocked with insulation.
In its simplest form, a cavity wall provides
the following three lines of defense:
1. An exterior cladding such as brick to
protect the cavity and drainage
2. An air space consisting of a 1- to 2-
in-wide drained cavity to
break the moisture train.
This dimension is measured
from the back of
the brick to the drainage
3. A drainage plane consisting
of a backup of CMU
or steel studs with
sheathing and both types
of backups covered with
an air barrier/waterresistant
barrier to drain
water to the bottom of
the cavity. Insulation can
also be added to the exterior
face of the drainage
plane as long as the air
space is maintained.
Flashing and associated
weeps are also a vital part of
a simple cavity wall and provide
an exit for moisture. In
theory, moisture that penetrates
the brick will enter the
cavity as a liquid or vapor.
The liquid runs down the
backside of the brick to the
bottom of the cavity. The
vapor condenses on the
drainage plane and drains to
the bottom of the cavity. Because of forces
produced by varying exterior wind and
internal HVAC, air pressure in the cavity
can be either negative or positive, relative to
the exterior. When the cavity pressure is
negative, it sucks, and that is not good
because it pulls in moisture in vapor and
sheet forms from the exterior. Ideally, the
cavity pressure should be equal to or slightly
positive compared to exterior pressure,
and that can be accomplished with cavity
vents and venting weeps. Depending on
cavity size, it may have to be partitioned to
achieve complete venting. This is usually
referred to as cavity equalization, but the
pressure within the cavity probably does
not actually equalize. A more appropriate
term mentioned by the Brick Institute
might be “cavity pressure compensation.”
Since moisture will invariably invade a
structure, it is best to make provisions for
the unwelcome intrusion. In that regard,
gravity and circulation can be a designer’s
best friend. By allowing moisture to run
freely down the inside of a cavity and then
weep to the exterior, gravity can keep accumulation
to a minimum. Venting the cavity
to allow circulation allows the cavity to
exchange damp air for dryer air; to neutralize
the cavity air pressure; and to prevent a
negative air pressure within the cavity,
which reduces moisture migration from
wind-driven rain. Wringing out the wall will
eliminate moisture. Weeping and venting
are also a designer’s friends. If venting is a
means of reducing water penetration into
the cavity, why haven’t all of those unvented
cavities been leaking? Careless construction
may have generated unintended openings
that achieved sufficient venting; but
now, tighter walls are being constructed.
Weeps, flashing, and vents work in unison.
Weeps must be of the proper type and
Figure 9 – Cavity impacted with mortar droppings.
Figure 10 – Loose insulation blocking cavity.
12 • I N T E R FA C E MA R C H 2011
properly located. Weeps should be directly
above the sill on the flashing and not as
shown in Figure 11. Cluttered cavities, as
previously shown, can obstruct the downward
flow of water and interfere with exiting
water at the weeps.
Provisions must be made to prevent
moisture entry, and additional provisions
must be made for a prompt exit when it
does enter, before damage is done.
Through-wall flashing and weeps are a vital
part of the drainage system. The flashing
should be a durable material such as copper
or stainless steel, and weeps should
occupy a full head joint and be spaced a
maximum 24 inches oc. Brick bats and
mortar droppings can puncture some flexible
sheet plastic flashing material. Although
frequently used, rope weeps should be discouraged
because, short of keeping bugs
and vermin out of the cavity, they become
encrusted with mortar droppings, making
them ineffective and interfering with cavity
Proper tooling causes the mortar to form
a paste that encapsulates the sand and
forms a protective water-resistant matrix.
Ideally, masonry should be cleaned regularly
and gently with a bucket of water and a
soft brush during construction to protect
the joints. Pressure washing can damage
that matrix and expose the sand or even
remove some of the mortar and destroy
waterproofing capabilities. If pressure
washing is permitted, maximum pressure
should be 300 psi to avoid damage to the
brick and mortar.
Flashing location is just as important as
the material and its installation. It should
be installed as shown in Figure 12. Flashing
must be installed correctly with the seams
sealed. Flashing should extend behind the
sheathing and have overlapped corners;
preformed corners are even better.
Masonry is going to leak some water,
but there is no industry standard for an
acceptable amount of leakage. Based on
what is known, it only seems reasonable to
expect a masonry structure to be able to
withstand wind-driven rain produced by
expected wind velocities and associated
pressure as depicted in the wind tables
applicable to the geographic location of the
structure. Designers must ensure that cav-
Patent #5,367,848
• Easy to Install and Understand
• Eliminates Removal of Existing Roof
• No Disruption to Business Operations
• Easy Upgrade to Standing Seam
Metal Roof
• Structurally Correct to Meet
Building Codes
• Very Low Profile and Lightweight
• Add Insulation for Energy Savings
• 2-3 Day Shipping on Standard Products
Retrofitting Your
Roof Is Easy and
􀀃􀀰􀀃􀀃􀀨􀀃􀀃􀀨􀀥􀀯􀀯􀀩􀀥􀀩􀀯􀀩􀀩􀀃 􀁇􀁪􀀃􀁞􀁙􀁰􀀃􀁭􀁫􀀃􀁙􀁬􀀲􀀃􀀰􀀯􀀯􀀥􀀪􀀨􀀪􀀥􀀪􀀪􀀭􀀬􀀃 􀀃􀀃􀀃
The Leader in Metal-over-Metal
Retrofit Re-Roofing Systems
􀀃􀀃􀀃􀀃􀀃 􀀃 􀀃 􀀿􀀷 􀁆 􀀽􀀽􀀼
ng nd
Figure 11 – Improperly located weeps.
Figure 12 – Flashing properly located
behind sheathing and joints overlapped but
not yet sealed.
MA R C H 2011 I N T E R FA C E • 1 3
ity spaces are clearly detailed to show air
space, drainage plane, compartments,
flashing, vents, and weeps, and that proper
materials are specified. The challenge is to
get the various components installed correctly.
When this author served on submarines,
a frequent question asked during
a candidate’s qualification examination was
“What is the difference between a leak and
a flood?” Of course, the correct answer was,
“If I find the water, it’s a leak. If the water
finds me, it’s a flood.” Let’s find the water to
avoid the flood.
ASTM C216, Specification For Facing
Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made
From Clay or Shale.)
Christine Beal, “ASTM C67 Test
Methods of Testing and Sampling
Brick and Structural Clay Tile,”
Masonry Design and Detailing, 4th
Edition, McGraw Hill, 1997.
Joseph L. Crissinger, “The Great Mois –
ture Movement,” Interface, July 2005.
Joseph L. Crissinger, “Measuring
Moisture Resistance to Wind-Driven
Rain Using a Rilem Tube,” Interface,
November 2005.
Joseph Lstiburek, Moisture Control
Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
Moisture Control In Buildings, edited by
Heinz R. Treschel and Mark T.
Bomberg, 2001.
I extend my sincere gratitude to Charlie
Martin, AIA, of McMillan Pazdan Smith, for
creating the graphics, and to my wife,
Linda, for editorial review.
14 • I N T E R FA C E MA R C H 2011
Joseph (Cris) Crissinger, CCS, CCCA, ASQ, is director of corporate
specifications with McMillan Pazdan Smith Architects
in South Carolina. His responsibilities also include field
investigations, facility assessments, and the coordination of
internal training programs. Crissinger is a member of the
Construction Specifications Institute, the National Institute
of Building Sciences, the International Concrete Restoration
Institute, the Design and Construction Division of the
American Society for Quality, and serves on the Building
Performance Committee of ASTM and in his community on the Construction Board of
Appeals for Spartanburg, SC. He is a two-time winner of RCI’s Horowitz Award for best
contribution to Interface journal. McMillan Pazdan Smith specializes in the design of
education, office, sports, healthcare, and church facilities and provides full construction
contract administration services. Crissinger can be reached via e-mail at
Joseph (Cris) Crissinger, CCS, CCCA, ASQ
At your own pace,
Roof Drainage Design
Design 􀀏􀂑􀂙􀇦􀀖􀂎􀂑􀂒􀂇􀀃􀀕􀂑􀂑􀂈􀂕􀀃􀇦􀀃􀀓􀂃􀂔􀂖􀀃􀀌􀇣􀀃
Design 􀀏􀂑􀂙􀇦􀀖􀂎􀂑􀂒􀂇􀀃􀀕􀂑􀂑􀂈􀂕􀀃􀇦􀀃􀀓􀂃􀂔􀂖􀀃􀀌􀀌􀇣􀀃
􀀘􀂐􀂆􀂇􀂔􀂕􀂖􀂃􀂐􀂆􀂋􀂐􀂉 􀀄􀀖􀀆
Wind Desi
􀀈 􀍹 􀍲􀍷
ign for
Wind Desi
ign for